Computational design and fabrication



“Any granular material falling from a fixed point forms a cone on the surface below and a funnel within the granulate mass with the same angle of inclination, the natural angle of repose, 35 degree.” Frei Otto, 1972

Frei Otto showed in his form-finding experiments with dry sand in a box with holes, that under force of gravity the material self-organization behaviour generates conical forms following the natural angle of repose and Voronoi logic. The self-formation behaviour calculates the material distribution considering the holes and boundary conditions. Following the constant angle of inclination, the research developed a number of mathematical equations to calculate the material distribution under different parameters conditions.

MATERIAL RESEARCH / sand distribution

MATERIAL RESEARCH / salt crystallization

MATERIAL SYSTEM / Distribution > Solidification > Dissolution

MATERIAL PERFORMANCE / Sandwich Molding technique